Report of NIH Biomedical Research and Training in Nutrition, FY 2007

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The Leader in Federally Supported Nutrition Research and Training

In Fiscal Year 2007, the NIH continued to lead Federal agencies in financial support of nutrition research and training, with a total of $1.1 billion. This total represents the combined individual contributions of the 19 NIH institutes, four centers and the Office of the Director (OD) that supported biomedical nutrition research and training. Actual obligations for FY 2007 biomedical nutrition research and training for NIH institutes and centers (ICs) are shown in Table 1 as amounts and as percentages of their total obligation.

Leading the ICs in total dollars expended in support of nutrition research were NIDDK, NCI and NHLBI, collectively accounting for two-thirds of the total NIH nutrition related spending.

Table 1. Actual Obligations, NIH Biomedical Nutrition Research and Training, as a Percentage of Total ICD Obligations, by NIH Component, FY 2007 (in thousands of dollars)

Institute / Center (IC) Nutrition
Research
and Training*
Total
IC Obligations**
Nutrition
as Percentage of
Total IC Obligations
NCI 244,993 4,795,491 5.1
NHLBI 219,121 2,919,180 7.5
NIDCR 9,339 389,807 2.4
NIDDK 283,255 1,856,026 15.3
NINDS 5,402 1,534,904 0.4
NIAID 12,654 4,366,445 0.3
NIGMS 3,784 1,935,625 0.2
NICHD 62,664 1,254,144 5
NEI 14,555 666,675 2.2
NIEHS 21,993 641,773 3.4
NIA 42,557 1,046,500 4.1
NIAMS 6,348 508,060 1.2
NIDCD 3,924 393,540 1
NIMH 19,588 1,403,570 1.4
NIDA 2,966 1,000,014 0.3
NIAAA 18,711 436,057 4.3
NINR 7,306 137,287 5.3
NHGRI 324 486,427 0.1
NIBIB 320 298,391 0.1
NCRR 49,525 1,143,841 4.3
NCCAM 60,170 121,379 49.6
NCMHD 2,221 199,429 1.1
FIC 1,725 66,422 2.6
OD+ 16,363 956,235 3.5
TOTAL++
1,109,808
28,557,222
3.9

* Actual obligations. Source: Human Nutrition Research and Information Management (HNRIM) System database. Funding reported via HNRIM are not considered official NIH numbers.
** Obligations. Source: NIH Office of Program Planning and Evaluation.
+ Office of the Director (OD) includes Office of Dietary Supplements, Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research and NIH Roadmap.
++Total excludes obligations for National Library of Medicine and buildings and facilities. Research, Condition, and Disease Categorization (RCDC) system total is $1,075 million due to changing categorization methods.

Leading NIH components in terms of the percentage of total IC budget dedicated to nutrition research and training were NCCAM, NIDDK and NHLBI, with 50 percent, 15 percent and 8 percent, respectively, for FY 2007.

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Trends in Nutrition Research and Training, 1998 2007

Actual obligations for nutrition research and training by NIH component during the past 10 years are shown in Table 2. The trend in current dollars was steadily upward for most ICs during the first half of this period. The more recent leveling of nutrition related expenditures reflects the end of the NIH budget doubling period between 1998 and 2003.

Table 2. Actual Obligations for Nutrition Research and Training by NIH Component, Fiscal Years 1998-2007 (Thousands of Dollars) a

NIH Component 1998 1999 b 2000 2001 2002 2003 c 2004 2005 2006 2007
Total 494,443 553,519 694,909 789,269 916,964 1,035,343 1,033,304 1,082,475 1,067,454 1,109,808
NCI 119,829 113,223 171,491 184,535 204,425 228,797 226,990 241,493 228,552 244,993
NHLBI 118,886 124,233 130,491 146,592 184,367 193,795 194,222 204,228 206,975 219,121
NIDCR 6,755 9,109 9,261 10,671 10,148 9,547 9,367 9,336 8,816 9,339
NIDDK 105,026 130,115 151,007 182,613 203,741 231,671 230,750 242,816 269,293 283,255
NINDS 4,032 3,870 9,048 10,358 10,150 10,139 10,587 6,901 7,845 5,402
NIAID 12,355 13,907 16,115 17,631 16,806 24,608 19,972 13,803 11,216 12,654
NIGMS 2,120 2,088 2,854 2,326 2,340 2,843 3,623 3,543 3,558 3,784
NICHD 28,401 35,029 41,602 45,549 50,957 56,818 50,738 53,628 58,322 62,664
NEI 15,665 17,438 20,796 23,724 26,891 21,032 20,253 15,432 14,555 14,555
NIEHS 7,078 6,615 10,839 14,286 22,644 23,680 23,962 27,694 26,819 21,993
NIA 20,763 26,720 31,380 42,579 55,990 61,970 61,453 62,737 53,980 42,557
NIAMS 4,569 4,544 4,531 2,984 3,366 2,928 4,262 7,359 8,140 6,348
NIDCD 2,514 1,757 1,610 1,478 2,881 2,734 3,316 3,627 3,309 3,924
NIMH 7,363 7,450 11,782 15,153 18,941 18,945 20,015 20,729 21,192 19,588
NIDA 1,980 3,450 4,100 4,492 5,093 4,111 3,318 1,963 2,204 2,966
NIAAA 7,632 8,089 9,424 7,790 9,869 11,663 14,074 16,677 15,614 18,711
NINR 2,775 3,434 4,487 5,134 5,862 7,231 5,187 5,124 6,684 7,306
NHGRI - - - 1,287 1,362 3,279 226 183 336 324
NIBIB - - - - - 343 340 - 293 320
NCRR 26,345 31,759 34,431 35,032 37,479 42,913 49,568 53,254 53,363 49,525
NCCAM - 10,305 28,985 34,394 42,369 53,301 54,550 55,059 51,727 60,170
NCMHD - - - - - 7,116 8,661 11,141 10,524 2,221
FIC 354 382 676 663 1,282 2,767 2,264 1,898 1,594 1,725
OD - - - - - 13,111 15,606 23,851 2,544 16,363
  1. Funding reported via HNRIM are not considered official NIH numbers.
  2. In FY 1999 includes funding for the National Center for Complimentary and Alternative Medicine.
  3. Beginning in FY 2003, Office of the Director (OD) includes Office of Dietary Supplements and Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research.

As shown in Table 3, total NIH expenditures for nutrition research and training have increased consistently since FY 1998 and have constituted approximately 4 percent of total NIH obligations during that period. This table also shows total NIH biomedical nutrition research and training support in constant, as well as current dollars. For example, nutrition research and training support showed a $614 million, or 136 percent, increase between FY 1998 and FY 2007 in current (unadjusted) dollars. In constant dollars (i.e., adjusted for inflationary price increases), nutrition research and training support in FY 2007 represented a 72 percent increase over the FY 1998 level.

In FY 2006, the latest year for which data for other agencies are available, the NIH continued to lead all Federal agencies in financial support of nutrition research and training with a total of $1.1 billion, as shown in Figure 1.

Table 3. Actual Obligations, NIH Biomedical Nutrition Research and Training, in Current and Constant Dollars, and as a Percentage of Total NIH Obligations FY 1998-2007 (in thousands of dollars)

Fiscal Year Nutrition Research and Training, Current Dollars* Nutrition Research and Training, Constant Dollars** Total NIH Obligations+ Current Nutrition Dollars as a Percentage of Total NIH Obligations
1998 494,443 494,443 12,777,283 3.9
1999 553,519 536,532 14,710,791 3.8
2000 694,909 649,383 16,843,082 4.1
2001 789,269 713,829 20,068,232 3.9
2002 916,964 802,730 22,294,111 4.1
2003 1,035,343 875,584 26,134,505 4
2004 1,033,304 842,472 27,486,371 3.8
2005 1,082,475 849,513 27,844,089 3.9
2006 1,067,454 800,658 28,050,802 3.8
2007 1,109,808 800,878 28,557,222 3.9

*Actual obligations. Source: Human Nutrition Research and Information Management (HNRIM) System. Funding reported via HNRIM are not considered official NIH numbers.
**Based on biomedical R&D price index, FY 1998 = 100 percent.
+Total excludes obligations for National Library of Medicine and Buildings and Facilities.

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Expenditures by HNRIM System Category and Interest Area

The NIH nutrition research support in the HNRIM system classification categories and the number of grants or contracts funded in each category are shown in Table 4. The column labeled "actual obligations" represents the nutrition funding for projects in each classifi-cation category, not the funding for the classifi-cation category per se. For example, a study of the effects of smoking and diet on coronary heart disease and obesity that was considered to be 60 percent nutrition related and had a total budget of $100,000 would contribute $60,000 toward the actual obligations reported for the area "Cardiovascular Disease and Nutrition" as well as $60,000 toward the actual obligations reported for the area "Obesity, Anorexia, and Appetite Control." As this example illustrates, a grant or contract may appear in more than one category.

Figure 1. Federal Expenditures in Support of Human Nutrition Research and Training, FY 2006

In FY 2005, the latest year for which data for other agencies are available, the NIH continued to lead all Federal agencies in financial support of nutrition research and training with a total of $1 billion, as shown in Figure 1

Source: Human Nutrition Research and Information Management (HNRIM) System database. Funding reported via HNRIM are not considered official NIH numbers (* Estimate).

Thus, if all actual obligations in the 43 categories were summed, the sum would exceed the total nutrition expenditures for that fiscal year. The column labeled "percent of total" represents the nutrition funds expended in a given category in relation to total NIH obligations for nutrition research and training, which totaled $1.1 billion for FY 2007.

Although NIH nutrition research encompasses all of the classification categories, the largest component is concentrated in the area of Research in the Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences (codes 1 - 25 and 35 - 37). The most frequently assigned nutrition classification codes include “Obesity, Anorexia, and Appetite Control," "Other Diseases and Nutrition," "Prevention and Nutrition," "Cancer and Nutrition," and "Cardiovascular Disease and Nutrition."

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Support by Extramural; and Intramural Categories

The NIH supports two broad categories of research: extramural and intramural. The extramural programs are responsible for approximately 85 percent of the total NIH resources in the form of research grants or contracts. Through these programs, NIH makes awards of various kinds to institutions throughout the United States and the world. Extramural awards are based on a two tiered peer review assessment - one for scientific merit and one for program relevance.

Within the NIH itself, and accounting for approximately 10 percent of its budget, is the intramural program. Nearly all of the NIH institutes have an intramural component of laboratory and clinical research programs. More than 2,000 intramural research projects are in progress at all times, making the NIH the largest center for biomedical and behavioral research in the world. Boards of scientific counselors are responsible for assessing the quality and direction of the intramural program, and the NIH Office of the Director provides scientific and policy oversight.

The NIH relies on three major funding mechanisms as the administrative instruments for accomplishing its extramural program goals: grants and cooperative agreements (financial assistance awards) and contracts (acquisition awards). Extramural nutrition research and training financial support is provided through all three of these major funding mechanisms. Support of extramural nutrition research utilizes research project grants, program project grants, center grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements.

Any of these mechanisms may include clinical trials; research resources support; reimbursement agreements; research career development awards; and new, academic, and teacher investigator awards. Extramural training in biomedical and behavioral nutrition research is supported through National Research Service Awards, with training grants awarded to institutions and fellowships awarded to individuals. The intramural nutrition program consists of research projects and training. The actual obligations in biomedical nutrition research and training by category of support for Fiscal Year 2007 are shown in Table 5.

Extramural projects comprised about 94 percent of nutrition related expenditures in Fiscal Year 2007 ($1.01 billion). Research grants continue to comprise the largest category of support, with $766 million and 3,195 projects. Program Projects made up the second largest category during this period, with $86 million and 102 projects. Centers ranked third, with $63 million and 167 projects. Contracts comprised the fourth largest category of support, with $43 million and 107 projects. The intramural program represented 5 percent of expenditures for nutrition research and training during FY 2007, with funding of $58 million and 198 projects.

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Nutrition Research Training

The NIH supports training in biomedical and behavioral nutrition research in both the extramural and the intramural programs. Within the extramural program, two basic mechanisms are used for nutrition training support: institutional awards and individual awards. The institutional awards, commonly called “training grants,” are designed to enable institutions to make training awards to individuals selected by them for predoctoral and postdoctoral research training. In FY 2007, NIH spent $11 million on 121 training grants in nutrition. The predoctoral and postdoctoral individual National Research Service Awards, called “fellowships,” are awarded to provide research training to individuals to broaden their scientific background and extend their potential for research. Expenditures for fellowships in nutrition were $4.2 million for 146 fellowships in FY 2007.

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Research, Condition, and Disease Categorization (RCDC)

At the request of Congress, the NIH embarked on a process to provide better consistency and transparency in the reporting of its funded research. This new process, implemented in FY 2008 through the RCDC system, uses sophisticated text data mining (categorizing and clustering using words and multiword phrases) in conjunction with NIH-wide definitions used to match projects to categories. The definitions are a list of terms and concepts selected by NIH scientific experts to define a research category. Due to methodology changes, it is likely that annual totals for categories in FY 2007 will exhibit a noticeable one-time adjustment. The research category funding levels represent the NIH’s best estimates based on the category definitions. This transition may affect the number of nutrition projects categorized and the corresponding total nutrition obligations. However, the subsequent coding of projects within the HNRIM system will remain unchanged.

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About the HNRIM System

The Human Nutrition Research and Information Management (HNRIM) system is a federal government-wide, online database created for the purpose of fiscal accounting, management, and monitoring of cross agency human nutrition research activities. The database was developed in response to a 1981 amendment to the 1977 National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act.

The system—which operates under the auspices of the Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research (ICHNR)—has been operational since 1985. It includes data on nutrition research and training expenditures from federal agencies that sponsor nutrition research. Projects are selected for inclusion in the HNRIM system by the sponsoring agency, based upon a common definition of human nutrition research agreed upon by the ICHNR. Projects are assigned nutrition classification codes compatible with the ICHNR definition of human nutrition research. The database is updated yearly by the reporting agencies through the HNRIM Program Director, a staff member in the NIH Division of Nutrition Research Coordination (DNRC).

The system was originally developed and maintained on a mainframe computer at NIH. More recently, it has been redesigned and ported to a client-server environment with a public access interface via the World Wide Web (http://hnrim.nih.gov).

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Definition of Terms

Biomedical Research and Development Price Index (BRDPI)
Measures real annual changes in the prices of items and services required for research and development (R&D) activities.
Constant Dollars
Dollar amounts adjusted for inflation, based on buying power in a selected base year. The BRDPI is used to determine constant dollars from current dollars.
Current Dollars
Actual dollars awarded without adjustment for inflation.
Extramural Research
Research supported by NIH through a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement.
Fiscal Year
The year beginning October 1 and ending the following September 30.
Intramural Research
Research conducted by, or in support of, employees of the NIH.
NIH Roadmap
The NIH Roadmap identifies the most compelling opportunities in three main areas: new pathways to discovery, research teams of the future, and re-engineering the clinical research enterprise.
Obligations
Data based on NIH funds that have been awarded by an NIH Institute/Center.

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Table 4. Actual Obligations, NIH Biomedical Nutrition Research and Training, by HNRIM Classification Category, FY 2007 (in millions of dollars)

Nutrition Research Classification Number of Grants and Contracts Actual Obligations Percent of Total
01 - Maternal Nutrition 242 58 5.2
02 - Infant and Child Nutrition (0-12 years) 422 116 10.4
03 - Adolescent Nutrition (13-18 years) 225 65 5.8
04 - Adult Nutrition (19-65 years) 260 91 8.2
05 - Nutrition of the Elderly (65+ years) 223 78 7.1
06 - Cardiovascular Disease and Nutrition 892 288 26
07 - Cancer and Nutrition 1,116 289 26
08 - Other Diseases and Nutrition 1,387 346 31.2
09 - Trauma (Including Burns) and Nutrition 35 6 <1
10 - Infection—Immunology and Nutrition 247 68 6.2
11 - Obesity, Anorexia, and Appetite Control 1,545 414 37.3
12 - Genetics and Nutrition 853 230 20.7
13 - Nutrition and Function 548 170 15.3
14 - Nutrient Interactions 507 113 10.2
15 - Other Conditions and Nutrition 215 56 5
16 - Nutritional Status R&D 202 52 4.7
17 - Carbohydrates 351 79 7.1
18 - Lipids (Fats and Oils) 790 220 19.8
19 - Alcohols 48 15 1.3
20 - Proteins and Amino Acids 168 43 3.9
21 - Vitamins 483 136 12.3
22 - Minerals and Essential Trace Elements 343 79 7.2
23 - Water and Electrolytes 118 24 2.2
24 - Fiber 43 18 1.7
25 - Other Nutrients In Food 80 19 1.7
26 - Food Composition R&D 21 5 <1
27 - Bioavailability of Nutrients 44 11 1
28 - Effects of Technology on Foods and Diets 19 4 <1
29 - Other Research in Food Sciences 16 3 <1
30 - Food Consumption Survey R&D 25 4 <1
31 - Dietary Practices, Food Consumption, & Determinants 405 138 12.5
32 - Studies of Methods for Informing & Educating the Public 66 20 1.8
33 - Other Research in Nutrition Education 24 6 <1
34 - Effects of Government Policy & Socioeconomic Factors 69 23 2.1
35 - Parenteral, Enteral, and Elemental Nutrition 39 10 <1
36 - Dietary Supplements: Nutrient Ingredients 657 184 16.6
37 - Dietary Supplements: Botanical & Other Non-nutrient Ingredients 472 124 11.2
51 - Prevention and Nutrition 1,141 312 28.1
52 - International Nutrition Research 83 21 1.9
53 - Epidemiological Nutrition Research 391 109 9.8
54 - Nutrition Education for Professionals 208 37 3.4
55 - Nutrition Education for the Public 132 37 3.4
56 - Clinical Trials of Nutrients/Nutrition 482 180 16.2

* The actual obligations represent the nutrition funding for projects in each classification area, not the funding of the classification area per se. A grant or contract may be assigned to more than one of these areas. Thus, summing the expenditures by area will yield a value that exceeds the total expenditures and summing the percent of total will yield a value greater than 100 percent.
** The total expenditure, in thousands of dollars, of the NIH nutrition program was $1,109,808 in FY 2007. Funding reported via HNRIM are not considered official NIH numbers

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Table 5. Actual Obligations, NIH Biomedical Nutrition Research and Training, by Category of Support, FY 2007 (in thousands of dollars)*

Funding Mechanism Breakdown Number Breakdown Cost Total Number Total Cost
Regular Extramural Research Grants 2,818 631,258    
Clinical Trials Extramural Research Grants 377 135,040    
Total Extramural Research Grants     3,195 766,298
Regular Program Projects 94 72,686    
Clinical Trials Program Projects 8 13,319    
Total Program Projects     102 86,005
Regular Contracts 77 31,901    
Clinical Trials Contracts 26 11,522    
Total Contracts     103 43,423
Regular Centers 159 56,877    
Clinical Trials Centers 8 6,236    
Total Centers     167 63,113
Training Grants Training 121 11,251    
Fellowships Training 146 4,220    
Total Training     267 15,471
Research Resources Support     133 40,038
Career Development Awards     380 34,130
Reimbursement Agreements     23 3,055
Subtotal, Extramural     4,370 1,051,533
Intramural Projects Training     198 58,276
Subtotal, Intramural     198 58,276
Total NIH Biomedical        
Nutrition Research & Training     4,568 1,109,809

* Actual obligations. Source: Human Nutrition Research and Information Management (HNRIM) System database. Funding reported via HNRIM are not considered official NIH numbers.

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